To teach sight words, consider utilizing the important link between reading and writing. If a child can write a word, there is a strong possibility that he can also read it. Model writing short sentences that contain the sight words you are focusing on. You may want to provide sentence stems for children to use. For example, young children can create their own little books using “I like…” The sentence stem on each page. Having them read their books to others will help solidify their knowledge of the sight words they used.
Along with purposeful writing activities, guided reading is another effective strategy for teaching sight words. Choose texts that are geared towards the child’s reading level. These are typically books with one sentence per page, paired with a picture, that follow a highly predictable pattern for beginning readers. Use a book to introduce one or two sight words, and then follow that lesson up with another book that incorporates those same words. Frequent exposure to sight words will help children learn them.
As you introduce new sight words through reading and writing, consider displaying the words for children to refer to. Many educators use “word walls” in their practice, a visual aid for children who are learning new vocabulary. Words are displayed on a bulletin board or wall and are organized alphabetically. Children use the word wall to support them while they’re writing, with the end goal of memorizing how the word is spelled. Commercial word walls can be purchased, containing sight words geared towards specific grades, or educators can create their own words using paper and markers.
The use of personal dictionaries can also support sight word instruction. Children are each given a book that contains high-frequency words, organized alphabetically. There is typically room to add more words as they are introduced. Like word walls, personal dictionaries are a resource that promotes independence as children are learning to use sight words in their writing.
Reading is a complex process that proficient readers can take for granted. When teaching children sight words, it’s important not to overwhelm them with multiple new words at a time. Children can achieve much more success when they have solidified their knowledge of one or two words before being introduced to more. It’s also important to note that children will need multiple experiences with words in the early stages before they can recognize them automatically. They may also need a review of words you thought they had mastered but have forgotten on a subsequent day.
It’s important to take into consideration which sight words you are introducing and whether there is a higher opportunity for errors when teaching visually similar words. For example, children may stumble over words such as “like” and “love” or “here” and “there” because of their similarities. Ensuring their knowledge of one word is solid and introducing a similar word in later lessons may help decrease confusion.
You may find that children achieve success quickly learning words that hold personal significance for them. For example, a child may be eager to read and write about her family members, such as “mom” or “dad.” A child who loves soccer may be motivated to learn words such as “like” and “play” to incorporate them into his writing.
Take advantage of multiple ways for children to work with sight words. In addition to reading and paper and pencil activities, children can make words using magnetic letters, alphabet tiles, or letter stamps. They can create sight words using clay or write them in the sand, salt trays, or shaving cream. Using different modalities will help children recognize sight words in different contexts and avoid the simple memorization of words in a list, which may not transfer to other situations.
When students experience difficulty learning sight words, it may be necessary to slow down the teaching pace. While one child may quickly recognize a new sight word after its introduction, another child may need many more experiences with the word before committing it to memory. Consider having struggling readers work with the same text in your guided reading practice over more than one day.
Some children may respond well to songs or catchy phrases that help them memorize sight words. Like the way lyrics get stuck in our heads, children may be able to retrieve the spelling for sight words if they can relate it to a song or phrase you have taught them and practiced over time.
When children are struggling with a task, their motivation to participate may dwindle. Consider teaching them sight word games to help with their learning and add some fun to the mix. Create cards, similar to flashcards, which can be used to play various games, including Go Fish and Concentration or Memory. Another favorite game is “Zoom,” which is played using a deck of sight words along with a few cards that say “Zoom.” Children take turns picking up a card from the deck and reading their word. When a player selects a card that says “Zoom,” he gets to take everyone’s cards. When the deck is gone, the player with the most cards wins.
To provide children with extra practice learning sight words, make them their own set of cards to use. Write the words on flashcards, punch a hole in each one, and attach them using a binder ring. As children practice their words, you may wish to mark the cards that they know so you can track which words they need to focus on.
If a child is continuing to struggle with learning sight words despite time and your best efforts, visiting a healthcare provider can be beneficial for discussing concerns. He or she will be able to provide recommendations regarding the next steps in the child’s learning journey.